Hinweis zum Urheberrecht
Dissertation zugänglich unter
Diversity of Ground Beetles and Saproxylic Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae + div. Saproxylic) in East Mediterranean Ecosystems (Israel)
Vielfalt von Laufkäfern und holzbewohnenden Käfern in Ökosystemen des östlichen Mittelmeeres (Israel)
Dokument 1.pdf (2.380 KB)
Laufkäfer , Totholz <Forstwirtschaft> , Käfer , Israel , Mittelmeerraum
Freie Schlagwörter (Englisch):
Ground Beetles , saproxylic beetles , Israel , East Mediterranean Ecosystem
Fak 3 - Umwelt und Technik (alt)
Assmann, Thorsten (Prof. Dr.)
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung:
Kurzfassung auf Englisch:
This thesis gives an overview on the diversity of some beetle species in different Mediterranean habitats as well as on the influence of forest management on insect diversity. Primarily, this work involved fundamental research, because very little research had previously been conducted under biodiversity aspects on either ground beetles or saproxylic beetles in the Mediterranean area of Israel. It was possible to prove that stenotopic ground beetles occur in different habitat types. Furthermore, the results of Chapter I and Chapter III show that additional research is needed to obtain a clear view of the beetle diversity in this area. Future studies should consider that a variety of catching methods are needed throughout the annual cycle in order to catch a good spectrum of ground beetles living in these habitats. It is clearly not sufficient to conduct a study of ground beetles using only pitfall traps and/or to restrict the study to the wet winter months.
The conclusions and management recommendations are therefore as follows: More studies on insect biodiversity are needed to obtain a comprehensive overview of insects in natural and planted Mediterranean woodlands. To facilitate this for a wide spectrum of scientists, identification keys for the Mediterranean insect fauna are urgently needed. Furthermore, foresters are in a position to decide which tree species composition has to be established and for what purpose. Nowadays, issues of forest management are primarily led by the objectives and potential uses of the forests. In times of global change, however, the potential future climatic situation and the ecosystem services provided by different woodlands also have to be considered when planning forest management (cf. also DUFOUR-DROR 2005 for Israel). Forest management is therefore also a matter of regional development and must thus include social demands and conservation actions. In a recent paper, OSEM et al. (2008) propose that forest management should consider different objectives, e.g. forests as a provider of ecosystem services, such as water infiltration, carbon sequestration and biodiversity. For these reasons, foresters should take the opportunity to establish oak individuals as a woody understorey component in pine stands. This would not only increase forest diversity but also strengthen the forests’ resistance and resilience to pest outbreaks, and would ensure better ecosystem functioning and soil stabilisation (cf. GINSBERG 2006; OSEM et al. 2008; PAUSAS et al., 2004). Moreover, both old and recent woodlands provide unique sections of biodiversity, as revealed by the occurrence of species restricted to specific microhabitats.
However, not only forest management but the management of all natural or semi-natural habitats in northern Israel is important. Many, if not all of these habitats, have been severely affected or completely destroyed by urban, industrial and agricultural development and fragmentation or by dense afforestation with non-native trees (e.g. Eucalyptus). This development, especially the loss of open space, is continuing because of Israel’s high human population density. For these reasons, all natural or semi-natural habitats are endangered (YOM-TOV & MENDELSSOHN 2004). This alarming development is in contrast with the overall importance of the region as a biodiversity hotspot (YOM-TOV and TCHERNOV 1988). This thesis demonstrates that there are numerous (also stenotopic) beetle species with preferences to specific habitats of open space (e.g. old-growth oak woodlands, recent oak woodlands, pine plantations, batha and old oak tree individuals). If Israel’s beetle diversity is to be preserved in future, it will be vital to protect all habitats and their succession stages.
Kurzfassung auf Deutsch: